Learning must be ethical: it is about amor fati, i.e., “to become worthy of what happens to us, and thus to will and release the event, to become the offspring of one’s own events, and thereby to be reborn, to have one more birth, and to break with one’s carnal birth [Arendt: natality!] – to become the offspring of one’s events and not of one’s actions, for the action is itself produced by the offspring of the event” (LoS 149-150)
Re concept-creation: “the concept is not given, it is created; it is to be created. It is not formed but posits itself in itself – it is a self-positing. Creation and self-positing mutually imply each other because what is truly created, from the living being to the work of art, thereby enjoys a self-positing of itself, or an autopoetic characteristic by which it is recognised” (WiP 11).
N.B. “in philosophy, concepts are only created as a function of problems which are thought to be badly understood or badly posed (pedagogy of the concept)” (WiP 16)
Re a pedagogy of the concept: it is “to analyze the conditions of creation as factors of always singular moments” (WiP 12)
“The relativity and absoluteness of the concept are like its pedagogy and its ontology, its creation and its self-positing, its ideality and its reality – the concept is real without being actual, ideal without being abstract. The concept is defined by its consistency, its endoconsistency [i.e., that of its components or parts] and exoconsistency [i.e., that of its relation to other concepts], but it has no reference: it is self-referential; it posits itself and its object at the same time as it is created. Constructivism unites the relative and absolute” (WiP 22)
DR 22: “learning [l’apprentissage, from apprendre, ‘to learn, to teach,’ from Latin apprehendere, ‘to take hold of, grasp,’ i.e., ‘to learn’] takes place not in the relation between a representation and an action (reproduction of the Same) but in the relation between a sign and a response (encounter with the Other)” – and signs involve heterogeneity in three ways:
- in (or from) the object that bears them (which is of another “order”) (differenciation)
- in themselves (i.e. because of their ideality, i.e., virtuality) (differentiation)
- in the response it elicits, which movement does not resemble its movement (counter-actualisation/dramatisation).
N.B. “Learning is essentially concerned with signs. Signs are the object of a temporal apprenticeship, not of an abstract knowledge. There is no apprentice who is not ‘the Egyptologist’ of something. One becomes a carpenter only by becoming sensitive to the signs of wood, a physician by becoming sensitive to the signs of disease. Vocation is always predestination with regard to signs. To learn is first of all to consider a substance, an object, a being as if it emitted signs to be deciphered, interpreted. Everything that teaches us something emits signs; every act of learning is an interpretation of signs” (P&S 4).
DR 23: “The movement of the swimmer does not resemble that of the wave, in particular, the movements of the swimming instructor which we reproduce on the sand bear no relation to the movements of the wave, which we learn to deal with only by grasping the former in practice as signs. That is why it is so difficult to say how someone learns: there is an innate or acquired practical familiarity with signs, which means that there is something amorous – but also something fatal – about all education. We learn nothing from those who say: ‘Do as I do.’ Our only teachers are those who tell us to ‘do with me,’ and are able to emit signs to be developed in heterogeneity rather than propose gestures for us to reproduce. In other words, there is no ideo-motivity, only sensory-motivity.
“When a body combines some of its own distinctive [remarquable] points with those of a wave, it espouses the principle of repetition which is no longer that of the Same, but involves the Other – involves difference, from one wave and one gesture to another, and carries that difference through the repetitive space thereby constituted. To learn is indeed to constitute this space of an encounter with signs …”
Vs the orthodox master-teacher: “According to this infantile prejudice, the master sets a problem, our task is to solve it, and the result is accredited true or false by a powerful authority” (DR 158)
Cf. Doing philosophy is not to “repeat what they [the philosophers] said [but] to do what they did,” i.e. “create concepts for problems that necessarily change” (WiP 28).
DR 164: “Learning is the appropriate name for the subjective acts carried out when one is confronted with the objectivity [objecticity”?] of a problem (Idea [as structure-event-sense (DR 191)]), whereas knowledge designates only the generality of concepts or the calm possession of a rule enabling solutions.”
DR 165: “To learn is to enter into the universal of the relations which constitute the Idea, and into their corresponding singularities.”
N.B. the Idea of the sea “is a system of liaisons or differential relations between particles and singularities corresponding to the degrees of variation among these relations – the totality of the system being incarnated in the real movement of the waves.”
“To learn to swim is to conjugate the distinctive points of our bodies with the singular points of the Objective Idea in order to form a problematic field. This conjugation determines for us a threshold of consciousness at which our real acts are adjusted to our perceptions of the real relations, thereby providing a solution to the problem” (= an “education of the senses”)
N.B. the “conjugation” that marks learning is why human beings and “nature” often seem to co-individuate: “problematic Ideas are precisely the ultimate elements of nature and the subliminal objects of little perceptions. As a result, ‘learning’ always takes place in and through the unconscious, thereby establishing the bond of a profound complicity between nature and mind” (see https://larvalsubjects.wordpress.com/2007/02/25/the-pedagogy-of-problems-and-the-figure-of-stupidity/).
“We never know in advance how someone will learn: by means of what loves someone becomes good at Latin, what encounters make them a philosopher, or in what dictionaries they learn to think.”
“There is no more a method for learning that there is for finding treasures.”
Learning involves “a violent training, a culture or paideïa which affects the entire individual” – via a mediator (intercesseur) (N, 121). Culture (becoming learned) is thus an “involuntary adventure, the movement of learning which links a sensibility, a memory and then a thought” (DR 165-166).
DR 192: “the Idea is not the element of knowledge but that of an infinite ‘learning,’ which is of a different nature of knowledge. For learning evolves entirely in the comprehension of problems as such, in the apprehension and condensation of singularities and in the composition of ideal events and bodies. Learning to swim or learning a foreign language means composing the singular points of one’s own body or one’s own language with those of another shape or element, which tears us apart but also propels us into a hitherto unknown and unheard-of world of problems.”
DR 194: “learning may be defined in two complementary ways, both of which are opposed to representation in knowledge: learning is either a matter of penetrating the Idea, its varieties and distinctive points, or a matter of raising a faculty to its disjoint transcendent exercise, raising it to that encounter and that violence which are communicated to the others.”
N.B. “philosophy needs not only philosophical understanding, through concepts, but a non-philosophical understanding, rooted in percepts and affects” (N, 139)
DR: Difference and Repetition
LoS: Logic of Sense
WiP: What Is Philosophy?